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Wu, Q., Spiryagin, M., and Cole, C. (September 16, 2022). "Block–Wheel–Rail Temperature Assessments Via Longitudinal Train Dynamics Simulations." ASME. J. Comput. Nonlinear Dynam. November 2022; 17(11): 111007. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4055431
Two research gaps were identified in block-wheel-rail temperature assessment. First, current studies are not combined with train dynamics which are better descriptions of the block-wheel-rail working environment. Second, current studies cannot simulate long rail sections. This paper developed a block-wheel-rail temperature assessment model by following the Finite Element idea. Models were validated by comparing with ANSYS Finite Element models and measured data. Case studies were carried out by combining the temperature model with a Longitudinal Train Dynamics model. A full-service and an emergency brake simulation were carried out for a 150-wagon heavy haul train on a 5,680 m long rail section. The results show that, due to brake force differences at different wagon positions, the maximum block and wheel temperature differences among individual wagons in the full-service brake simulation were 117.01 and 117.91 °C respectively. This highlighted the contribution of introducing train dynamics into block-wheel-rail temperature assessment. Rail temperature increases caused by wheel-rail temperature differences and frictional heating were about 10.60 and 2.65°C, respectively.
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Tian Mi, Gabor Stepan, Denes Takacs, and Nan Chen (January 23, 2020). "Vehicle Shimmy Modeling With Pacejka's Magic Formula and the Delayed Tire Model." ASME. J. Comput. Nonlinear Dynam. March 2020; 15(3): 031005. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4045943
Shimmy is a self-excited vibration which can appear in various wheeled mechanisms such as trailers, motorcycles, bicycles, cars, landing gears of aircrafts, and even baby strollers or supermarket trolleys. Shimmy of cars is also known as vehicle shimmy or death wobble. The cause of shimmy is related to the dynamic characteristics of the tire-road contact and the overall system structure. It increases tire wear, deteriorates vehicle handling, and causes further instability problems of the whole vehicle.
In this paper, a 3 degree-of-freedom model of vehicle front wheels with dependent suspension is studied from the viewpoint of possible appearance of shimmy, and two tire models are compared. The two tire models have essentially different assumptions: Pacejka’s magic formula uses linearization in space along the tire-ground contact line where the tire points stick to the ground, while the delayed tire model uses linearization in time by considering small (but spatially nonlinear) lateral deformations of the tire in the contact region. The theoretical results show that the delayed tire model presents additional instabilities (i.e., shimmy) at low speeds, and especially at low damping values.
The investigation of this model is motivated by the occurrence of shimmy on some heavy vehicles and jeeps with worn front wheel suspension system, and the conclusions might be useful in the future study of shimmy in systems with independent suspensions of some electric vehicles.